Physics research is done in many subfields of physics, and at many places. It's not possible to list all of them, so I will just give you a few links and focus on my own research interests in theoretical nuclear physics.
I am a member of the Nuclear Theory Group of OSU's Physics Department.
You can find more details about my research at my research home page.
Before coming to OSU, I was a post-doc at Jefferson Lab's Theory Group, and at the Center for Theoretical Physics at MIT. I obtained my Ph.D. in 1996 from Bonn University (Germany), after completing my thesis research work at the Institute for Nuclear Physics at the Research Center in Juelich (Germany).
In case that you would like to do some research, contact me for research projects and check out the opportunities to participate in summer research programs for students:
The Research Experience for Undergraduates funded by the National Science Foundation - this link lists research opportunities in all sciences and engineering, not just physics.
The National Labs run by the Department of Energy also have summer programs for undergraduates, in science and engineering.
NASA has also various programs for undergraduates.
Research involves a lot of numerical computation. Below are links to webpages where you can download various compilers (Fortran, C, C++), editors (emacs), and a "linux-like" environment for PCs running under Windows (cygwin):
If you use a PC running Windows:
In order to install the compiler bundle gcc (includes c, c++, fortran), click on the "install or update now!". Then, follow the prompts on the installation screen until you get to the "Select Packages"
screen. There, click on the "View" button to toggle the view to "Full" - it comes up as "Packages" by default. The full view gives you an alphabetic list of all available packages, choose "gcc" and everything else you'd like.
If you use Linux:
Free Software Foundation (the GNU project) in particular their compiler collection
A great editor: emacs (available for all platforms)
Great lectures by Frank Close from 2001, understandable for the general public (sound quality improves hugely after two minutes or so). After clicking on the link, click on "lecture" to see both video and transparencies at the same time.
Physics for Non-Physics Students (Part I)
Particle Physics for Non-Physics Students (Part II)
Particle Physics for Non-Physics Students (Part III)
Particle Physics for Non-Physics Students (Part IV)
If you would like to see and hear some interesting physics talks, try the link to the Plenary Talks of the American Physical Society Meeting. Caution, real physics - these talks are intended for a physicist audience, but some of them start out fairly understandable even for a non-physicist:
APS April 2003 Meeting Weblectures
More APS web lectures
Collection of Weblectures, both on Physics and Computing (including a C++ course)
DESY (German Electron Synchrotron) weblectures
Lepton Photon 2003
Jefferson Lab video archives
Disclaimer: The links above are given for information purposes only. Listing these links does not imply that I or OSU support any opinions expressed therein. Download from these pages at your own risk.