Collaborative Learning, Research, and Writing:
A Selected Bibliography of Books, Articles, and Web Sites
William Sullivan

Books and Articles:

Adams, Pauline G., and Emma S. Thornton. "An Inquiry into the Process of Collaboration." Language Arts Journal of Michigan 2 (Spring 1986): 25-28.

Allen, N., Atkinson, D., Morgan, M., Moore, T., and Snow, C. "What Experienced Collaborators Say about Collaborative Writing." Journal of Business and Technical Communication 1 (1987): 70-90.

Ashton-Jones, Evelyn, and Dene Kay Thomas. "Composition, Collaboration, and Women's Ways of Knowing." Journal of Advanced Composition 10 (1990): 275-292.

Barr, Robert B. and John Tagg. "From Teaching to Learning: A New Paradigm for Undergraduate Education." Change Nov./Dec. 1995. 13-25.

Beard, J. D., Rymer, J., and Williams, D. L. "An Assessment System for Collaborative- Writing Groups: Theory and Empirical Evaluation." Journal of Business and Technical Communication 3 (1989): 29-51.

Beck, E. "A Survey of Experiences of Collaborative Writing." Computer Supported Collaborative Writing. Ed. M. Sharples. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1993. 87-112.

Billson, Janet M. "The College Classroom as a Small Group: Some Implications for Teaching and Learning." Teaching Sociology 14 (1986), 143-151.

Bishop, W. "Helping Peer Writing Groups Succeed." Teaching English in the Two-Year College 15 (1986): 120-125.

Bonwell, Charles C., and James A. Eison. Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. The ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report Series. Washington, D.C.: The George Washington University, 1991.

Bosley, Deborah S., Meg Morgan, and Nancy Allen. "An Essential Bibliography on Collaborative Writing." Bulletin of the Association for Business Communication 53.2 (1990) 27-33. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bosley, Deborah S. "Individual Evaluations in a Collaborative Report Project." Technical Communication, 37 (1990): 160-162.

Bosworth, Kris, and Sharon J. Hamilton, eds. Collaborative Learning: Underlying Processes and Effective Techniques. New directions for teaching and learning ; no. 59. San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass, 1994.

Bouton, Clark, and Russell Y. Garth, eds. Learning in Groups. New Directions in Teaching and Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers, 1983.

Brookfield, Stephen. The Skillful Teacher: On Technique, Trust, and Responsiveness in the Classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1990.

Bromwich, David. "The Unsocial Construction of Literature." Association of Departments of English Bulletin 107 (1994): 6-9.

Bruffee, Kenneth A. "Collaborative Learning and the 'Conversation of Mankind.'" College English 46.7 (November 1984): 635-652.

---. Collaborative Learning. Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993. BIBLIOGRAPHY

---. "Collaborative Learning: Some Practical Models." College English 34 (1973): 634-643.

---. "Liberal Education and the Social Justification of Belief." Liberal Education 68 (1982): 95-114.

---. "On Not Listening in order to Hear: Collaborative Learning and the Rewards of Classroom Research." Journal of Basic Writing 7 (1988): 3-12.

---. A Short Course in Writing: Composition, Collaborative Learning, and Constructive Reading. 4th ed. New York: Harper Collins, 1993. BIBLIOGRAPHY

---. "Social Construction, Language, and the Authority of Knowledge: A Bibliographical Essay." College English 48.9 (December 1986): 773-790.

---. "Writing and Reading as Collaborative or Social Acts." The Writer's Mind. Ed. J. N. Hays, J. R. Ramsey, and R. D. Foulke. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1983. 159-170.

Burks, Don M. "Dramatic Irony, Collaboration, and Kenneth Burke's Theory of Form." Pre/Text 6 (1985), 255-273.

Clifford, John. "Composing in Stages: The Effects of a Collaborative Pedagogy." Research in the Teaching of English. 15 (1981): 37-53.

Cohen, E.G. "Restructuring the Classroom: Conditions for Productive Small Groups."  Review of Educational Research, 64 (1994): 1-35.

Cooper, J. "Cooperative Learning and College Teaching: Tips from the Trenches."  The Teaching Professor, 4 (May 1990): 1-2.

Cooper, Marilyn M., and Cynthia L. Selfe. "Computer Conferences and Learning: Authority, Resistance, and Internally Persuasive Discourse." College English 52 (1990): 847- 869.

Couture, Barbara, and Jone Rymer. "Interactive Writing on the Job: Definitions and Implications of 'Collaboration.'" Writing in the Professions. Ed. Myra Kogen. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1989. 73-93.

Curry, John J., III. "The Facilitator's Guide to the Small Group Process." Rev. ed. Columbus, Ohio, 1997.

Davis, Barbara G. Tools for Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1993.

Dougherty, R. C., et al. "Cooperative Learning and Enhanced Communication: Effects on Student Performance, Retention, and Attitudes in General Chemistry." Journal of Chemical Education 72.9 (1995), 793-797.

Duin, Ann Hill. "Computer-Supported Collaborative Writing." Journal of Business and Technical Communication 5.2 (April 1991): 123-150.

---. "Developing Texts for Computers and Composition: A Collaborative Process."  Computers and Composition 9.2 (April 1992): 17-39.

Duin, A.H., Jorn, L., & DeBower, M. "Collaborative Writing: Courseware and Telecommunications." Collaborative Writing in Industry: Investigations in Theory and Practice. Ed. M. M. Lay & W. M. Karis. Farmingdale, NY: Baywood Publishing, 1991. 146-169.

Dyson, Anne Haas, ed. Collaboration Through Writing and Reading: Exploring Possibilities. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1989.

Ede, Lisa, and Andrea Lunsford. "Collaborative Learning: Lessons from the World of Work." Journal of the Council of Writing Program Administrators 9.3 (1986): 17-26.

---. "Rhetoric in a New Key: Women and Collaboration." Rhetoric Review 8 (1990): 234- 241.

Enos, Theresa. "Gender and Publishing." Pre/Text 11 (Fall-Winter 1990): 311-316.

Fiore, Kyle, and Nan Elsasser. "'Strangers No More': A Liberatory Literacy Curriculum." College English 44 (1982): 115-128.

Flower, Linda. The Construction of Negotiated Meaning: A Social Cognitive Theory of Writing. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1994

Forman, Janis. "Collaborative Business Writing: A Burkean Perspective for Future Research." Journal of Business Communication 28.3 (1991): 233-257.

---. "Computing and Collaborative Writing". Evolving Perspectives on Computers and Composition Studies. Ed. G. E. Hawisher & C.L. Selfe. Urbana, IL: NCTE., 1991. 65-83.

---. "The Discourse Communities and Group Writing Practice of Management Students." Worlds of Writing: Teaching and Learning in Discourse Communities of Work. Ed. Carolyn Matalene. New York: Random House, 1989. 247-254.

---. "Leadership Dynamics of Computer-Supported Writing Groups." Computers and Composition 7.2 (1990): 35-46.

---, ed. New Visions of Collaborative Writing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann- Boynton/Cook, 1992.

---. "Novices Work on Group Reports: Problems in Group Writing and in Computer- Supported Group Writing." Journal of Business and Technical Communication 5.1 (1991): 48-75.

Forman, Janis, and Patricia Katsky. "The Group Report: A Problem in Small Group or Writing Processes?" Journal of Business Communication 23 (Fall 1986): 23-35.

Gearhart, Kyle Anne. "A Collaborative Writing Project in a Technical Communication Course." Technical Communication 39.3 (1992): 360-366.

Gebhardt, Richard. "Teamwork and Feedback: Broadening the Base of Collaborative Writing." College English 42 (1980): 69-74.

George, Diana. "Working with Peer Groups in the Writing Classroom." College Composition and Communication 35 (1984): 320-326.

Gere, Anne Ruggles. "The Language of Writing Groups: How Oral Response Shapes Revision." Evaluation, Response, Revision. Ed. Sara Freedman. New York: Ablex, 1985.

---. Writing Groups: History, Theory, and Implications. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1987.

Gergen, Kenneth J., "The Social Constructionist Movement in Modern Psychology." The American Psychologist 40 (1985): 265-275.

Glidden, Jock, and Joanne Gainen Kurfiss. "Small Group Discussion in Philosophy 101." College Teaching 38 (1990): 3-8.

Goldstein, Jone Rymer, and Elizabeth L. Malone. "Using Journals to Strengthen Collaborative Writing." Bulletin of the Association for Business Communication 48.3 (1985): 24-29.

Golub, Jeff, ed. Focus on Collaborative Learning. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1988.

Goodsell, Anne, Michelle Maher, and Vincent Tinto, ed. Collaborative Learning: A Sourcebook for Higher Education. University Park, PA: National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Leaning, and Assessment, 1992. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Haring-Smith, Tori. Writing Together: Collaborative Learning in the Writing Classroom. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.

Harris, Joseph, "The Idea of Community in the Study of Writing." College Composition and Communication 40 (February 1989): 11-22.

Hawkes, Peter. "Collaborative Learning and American Literature." College Teaching 39 (1991): 140-144.

Hawkins, Thom. Group Inquiry Techniques for Teaching Writing. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1976.

Hays, Janice N., Phyllis A. Roth, Jon R. Ramsey, and Robert Folke, eds. The Writer's Mind. Urbana: NCTE, 1983.

Heffner, Alan G. "Authorship Recognition of Subordinates in Collaborative Research." Social Studies on Science 9 (1979): 377-384.

Henschen, B. M., and E. I. Sidlow. "Collaborative Writing." College Teaching 38 (1990): 29-32.

Hillocks, George. "Inquiry and the Composing Process: Theory and Research." College English 44 (1982): 659-673.

Holt, Mara. "Collaborative Learning from 1911-1986: A Socio-Historical Analysis." Diss. University of Texas, 1988. DA 49-11 (1988): 3286A.

---. "Towards a Democratic Rhetoric: Self and Society in Collaborative Theory and Practice." Journal of Teaching Writing 8 (Spring-Summer 1989): 99-112.

Holt, Patrik O'Brian, and Noel Williams, eds. Computers and Writing: State of the Art. Oxford, England: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

Hubbard, D. L., ed. Continuous Quality Improvement: Making the Transition to Education. Maryville, MO: Prescott Publishing Co., 1993.

Inge, M. Thomas. "The Art of Collaboration in Popular Literature." Eye on the Future: Popular Culture Scholarship into the Twenty-First Century. Ed. Marilyn F. Motz, John G. Nachbar, Michael T. Marsden, and Ronald J. Amrosetti. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1994. 31-42.

Jacko, Carol M. "Small Group Triad: An Instructional Mode for the Teaching of Writing." College Composition and Communication 29 (1978): 290-292.

Jorn, L.A., and A. H. Duin. "Information Technology and the Collaborative Writing Process in the Classroom." The Bulletin of the Association for Business Communication 55.4, (1992): 13-20.

Kail, Harvey. "Collaborative Learning in Context: The Problem with Peer Tutoring." College English 45 (1983): 594-599.

Karis, Bill. "Conflict in Collaboration: A Burkean Perspective." Rhetoric Review 8 (Fall 1989): 113-126.

Knox-Quinn, Carolyn. "Collaboration in the Writing Classroom: An Interview with Ken Kesey." College Composition and Communication 41.3 (October 1990): 309-317.

Langford, David P. Quality Learning Training Manual. Version 4.0. Billings, MT: Langford International, Inc., 1996.

Lay, M.M. "Interpersonal Conflict in Collaborative Writing: What We Can Learn from Gender Studies." Journal of Business and Technical Communication 3 (1989): 5-28.

LeFevre, Karen Burke. Invention as a Social Act. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1987.

Leonard, James S., Christine E. Wharton, Robert Murray Davis, and Jeanette Harris, eds. Author-ity and Textuality: Current Views of Collaborative Writing. West Cornwall, CT: Locust Hill Press, 1994. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Locker, Kitty O. Business and Administrative Communication. 3rd ed. Chicago: Irwin, 1995.

Louth, R., and Scott, A. M., eds. Collaborative Technical Writing: Theory and Practice. Association of Teachers of Technical Writing Anthology Series. Lubbock: ATTW, 1989.

Lunsford, Andrea. "Collaboration, Control, and the Idea of a Writing Center." Writing Center Journal 12.1 (Fall 1991): 3-10.

Lunsford, Andrea, and Lisa Ede. "Collaborative Authorship and the Teaching of Writing." The Construction of Authorship: Textual Appropriation in Law and Literature. Ed. Martha Woodmansee and Peter Jaszi. Durham: Duke UP, 1994.  417-38.

---. Singular Texts/Plural Authors: Perspectives on Collaborative Writing. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1990.

---. "Why Write . . . Together?" Rhetoric Review 1 (1983): 150-157.

---. "Why Write . . .Together: A Research Update." Rhetoric Review 5 (1986): 71-77.

Mangan, Katherine S. "Undergraduates, Professors Collaborate on Research at More and More Colleges." The Chronicle of Higher Education, 27 May 1987: 1, 26.

Mason, Edwin. Collaborative Learning. New York: Agathon, 1971.

Matalene, Carolyn, ed. Worlds of Writing: Teaching and Learning in Discourse Communities of Work. New York: Random House, 1989.

McNenny, Geraldine, and Duane H. Roen. "The Case for Collaborative Scholarship in Rhetoric and Composition." Rhetoric Review 10 (Spring 1992): 291-310.

Morgan, M., Allen, N., Moore, T., Atkinson, D., and Snow, C. "Collaborative Writing in the Classroom." The Bulletin of the Association for Business Communication 50 (1987): 20-26.

Newman, J., and R. Newman. "Three Modes of Collaborative Authoring." Computers and Writing: State of the Art. Ed. P. Holt and N. Williams. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992. 20-28.

Nystrand, M. "A Social-Interactive Model of Writing." Written Communication 6 (1989): 66-85.

Oblinger, Diana G., and Sean C. Rush, eds. The Learning Revolution: The Challenge of Information Technology in the Academy. Bolton, Mass. : Anker Pub. Co., 1997.

O'Banion, Terry. A Learning College for the 21st Century. Phoenix, AZ: American Council on Education/Oryx Press, 1997.

---. Teaching & Learning in the Community College. Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges, 1994

O'Donnell, Angela M., D. F. Dansereau, T. Rocklin, J. G. Lambiotte, V. I. Hythecker, and C. O. Larsen. "Cooperative Writing: Direct Effects and Transfer." Written Communication 2 (July 1985): 307-315.

---. "Effects of Cooperative and Individual Rewriting on an Instruction Writing Task." Written Communication 4 (1987): 90-99.

Peck, Elizabeth G., and JoAnna Stephens Mink. Common Ground: Feminist Collaboration in the Academy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998.

Plowman, L. Talking and Writing in a Group Writing Task: A Sociocognitive Perspective. Collaborative Writing Research Group Report 5. University of Sussex: School of Cognitive and Computing Sciences, 1992.

Porter, James E. "Intertextuality and the Discourse Community." Rhetoric Review 5 (1986): 34-47.

Pratt, Mary Louise. "Arts of the Contact Zone." Profession 91. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1991. 33-40.

Rafoth, Bennett A., and Donald L. Rubin. The Social construction of written communication. Norwood, N.J. : Ablex Pub., 1988.

Rau, William, and Barbara Sherman Heyl, "Humanizing the College Classroom: Collaborative Learning and Social Organization Among Students." Teaching Sociology 18 (1990): 141-155.

Regel, P. "Using a Total Quality Management Approach in the Teaching of English Composition." Paper presented at "Reinventing the Community College," Annual Computer Conference of the League for Innovation in the Community College, Nashville, TN. 1993.

Reither, James A. and Douglas Vipond. "Writing as Collaboration." College English 51.8 (December 1989): 855-867.

Resnick, L., J. Levine, and S. Teasley, eds. Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Society, 1991.

Sharples, Mike, ed. Computer Supported Collaborative Writing. London; New York : Springer-Verlag, 1993.

Schiappa, Edward. "Burkean Tropes and Kuhnian Science: A Social Constructionist Perspective on Language and Reality." Journal of Advanced Composition 13.2 (1993): 401-422.

Schleifer, Ronald. "Disciplinarity and Collaboration in the Sciences and Humanities." College English 59.4 (April 1997): 438-452.

Schleifer, Ronald, Robert Con Davis, Nancy Mergler, eds. Culture and Cognition : The Boundaries of Literary and Scientific Inquiry. Ithaca : Cornell University Press, 1992.

Schrage, Michael. Shared Minds. The New Technologies of Collaboration. New York: Random House, 1990. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Scott, Ann Martin. "Group Projects in Technical Writing Courses." Technical Writing Teacher 15 (1988): 138-142.

Sharan, Shlomo, ed. Cooperative Learning: Theory and Research. New York: Praeger, 1990.

Sharan, Shlomo, and Hana Sachar. Languages and Learning in the Cooperative Classroom. New York: Praeger, 1990.

Sheridan, Jean, Ann C. Byrne, and Kathryn Quina. "Collaborative Learning: Notes for the Field." College Teaching 37.2 (1989), 49-53.

Shor, Ira. When Students Have Power. Negotiating Authority in a Critical Pedagogy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Slavin, Robert. Cooperative Learning. New York: Longman, 1983.

---. Learning to Cooperate, Cooperating to Learn. New York: Plenum, 1985.

Smit, David W. "Some Difficulties with Collaborative Learning." Journal of Advanced Composition 9 (1989): 45-58.

Sosnoski, James J., and David B. Downing. "A Multivalent Pedagogy for a Multicultural Time: A Diary of a Course." Pre/Text 14 (Fall/Winter 1993), 307-340.

Spear, Karen. Sharing Writing: Peer Response Groups in English Classes. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1988.

Spellmeyer, Kurt. "On Conventions and Collaboration: The Open Road and the Iron Cage."

Writing Theory and Critical Theory. Ed. John Clifford and John Schilb. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1994. 73-95.

Steffens, Henry. "Collaborative Learning in a History Seminar." The History Teacher 21 (1988): 1-14.

Stewart. Donald C. "Collaborative Learning and Composition: Boon or Bane?" Rhetoric Review 7 (Fall 1988): 58-83.

Stillinger, Jack. Multiple Authorship and the Myth of Solitary Genius. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Technical Communication: Journal of the Society for Technical Communication. 38-39 (November, 1991).

Terenzini, P.T., and E. T. Pascarell. "Living with Myths: Undergraduate Education in America." Change Jan./Feb.1994:1.

Trimbur, John, "Collaborative Learning and Teaching Writing." Perspectives on Research and Scholarship in Composition. Ed Ben W. McClelland and Timothy R. Donovan. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1985. 87-109

---. "Consensus and Difference in Collaborative Learning." College English 51.6 (October 1989): 602-616.

---. "Peer Tutors and the Benefits of Collaborative Learning." Writing Lab Newsletter 8 (1983): 1-3.

Van Pelt, William, and Alice Gillam. "Peer Collaboration and the Computer-Assisted Classroom: Bridging the Gap between Academia and the Workplace." Collaborative Writing in Industry: Investigations in Theory and Practice. Ed. Mary M. Lay and William M. Karis. Amityville, NY: Baywood, 1991. 170-215.

Wagonner, M. "A Case Study Approach to Evaluation of Computer Conferencing." Collaborative Learning Through Computer Conferencing: The Najaden Papers. Ed. Anthony R. Kaye. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1992. 137-146.

Webb, Noreen M., "Student Interaction and Learning in Small Groups." Review of Educational Research 52 (1982): 421-445.

Weimer, Maryellen. "Cooperative Learning and Communication: Evidence of Results." The Teaching Professor 10.10 (December 1996), 5.

Weiner, Harvey S. "Collaborative Learning in the Classroom: A Guide to Evaluation." College English 48.1 (January 1986): 52-61.

Whipple, William R. "Collaborative Learning: Recognizing It When We See It." AAHE Bulletin 40 (October 1987), 3-7.

Wolverton, Mimi. A New Alliance: Continuous Quality and Classroom Effectiveness.

ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No.6. Washington, D.C. : The George Washington University, 1994. BIBLIOGRAPHY


Web Sites:


The Ohio State University. Project Reinvent. 20 Feb. 1998. 25 March 1998 <>

The Ohio State University. "Student-Centered Learning Initiative (SCLI)." Project Reinvent. 8 Jan. 1998. 25 March 1998 <>


The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health. M.D. Curriculum Program Offerings. 16 Oct. 1997. 25 March 1998 <>

The Ohio State University "Problem-Based Learning Pathway." M.D. Curriculum Program Offerings. 10 Dec. 1997. 25 March 1998 <>



"Best Practices." Kellogg Commission On the Future of State and Land-Grant Institutions. 1 Oct. 1997. 30 March 1998.<>

"Collaborative Learning (1/5/98)." Bradley University, Peoria, IL: Office of Teaching Excellence and Faculty Development. n.d. 30 March 1998.<>

"Collaborative Learning." Center for Teaching and Learning. Washington State University. 27 March 1998. 30 March 1998.<>

"Collaborative Learning." University of Minnesota Extension Service. 7 Nov, 1997. 30 March 1998. <>

"Collaborative Learning and Research Project (West Chester University, California State University at Long Beach, University of Wyoming, Casper College)." 25 March 1998.  30 March 1998. <>

"Collaborative Web Learning Projects." O'Keefe Library, St. Ambrose University. 26 Feb. 1996. 30 March 1998.<>

"Collaborative Writing." [University of Arizona]. 18 Sept. 1997. 30 March 1998.

[The following is the result of a web search on the term"collaborative writing" (or at least the first 1000 sites). There may, or may not be some useful links in the following. Many of the sites were removed if they were obviously not of interest (personal pages of students who mentioned collaborative writing in their page, etc.)] <>

"CollaboratIve Writing Project: Collaborative Multimedia Research Group. [Rivier College] 6 Feb. 1996. 30 March 1998.< >

"Computer-Supported Cooperative Work." Usability First. 3 March 1998. 30 March 1998.<>

"Cooperative Learning." The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. 9 May, 1997. 30 March 1998.<>

Green, Meredith, and Sarah Duerden. "Collaboration, English Composition, & the Engineering Student: Constructing Knowledge in the Integrated Engineering Program." 4 Sept. 1996. 30 March 1998. <>

Honeycutt, Lee, and Deborah Bosley. "On-Line Bibliography of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work." 25 Nov. 1996. 30 March 1998.<>

Hurley, Brian, and Peter Birkwood. "Effective Remote Collaborative Writing." 23 Nov., 1996. 30 March 1998. <>


Transfer interrupted!

nt." Journal of Learning and Teaching 1.1 (Spring 1995). 7 May 1996. 30 March 1998. <>

Lunsford, Andrea, Rebecca Rickly, Michael Salvo, and Susan West. "What Matters Who Writes? What Matters Who Responds? Issues of Ownership in the Writing Classroom." Kairos. A Journal for Teachers of Writing in Webbed Environments. 15 March 1996. 3 March 1998. <>

McDonald, David. "Improving Student Learning with Group Assignments." [Lake Superior State University] 16 Oct. 1995. 30 March 1998.<>

Mitchell, Alex. "Communication and Shared Understanding in Collaborative Writing." Masters Thesis, University of Toronto. 26 March 1996. 30 March 1998.<>

Ray, J. William, Jr., and Donald W. Yates. "Implementing TQM in the Classroom: Removing Fear." 16 Oct. 1995. 30 March 1998. <>

"Redesigning Courses" and Goal-Based Scenarios." Engines for Educators. <>

"Resources." Creating a Learning College. 30 March 1998. 30 March 1998.

Tinzmann, M. B., B. F. Jones, T. F. Fennimore, J. Bakker, C. Fine, and J. Pierce. "What Is the Collaborative Classroom?" North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. 23 May 1997. 30 March 1998. <>

"William A. & Joan L. Schreyer Institute for Innovation in Learning." Kellogg Commission On the Future of State and Land-Grant Institutions. 6 Aug. 1997. 30 March 1998.<>